A Zygomycete mold. Allergenic. This mold causes mucorosis in
immuno-compromised individuals. This molds known sites of infection are the lung,
nasal sinus, brain, eye and skin. Infection may have multiple sites.
Acidic liquid or solid particles that are small enough to become
airborne. High concentrations of acid aerosols can be irritating to the lungs and have
been associated with some respiratory diseases, such as asthma.
Type I allergenic and Type III hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
Associated with Humidifier Lung. This mold is widespread and requires very wet conditions.
Also, this mold produces a trichothecene toxin, which is toxic if ingested. This mold was
the primary agent identified in at least two houses where the occupant complaints were
nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Asexual state of Emericellopsis sp., Chaetomium
sp., and Nectripsis sp. molds. This mold produces mycetomas, infections
of the cornea and nails. This mold is characterized by small white or pale shades of pink,
salmon colonies; membraneous or thinly velvety. This mold can be found in soil, dead
organic debris, hay and foodstuffs.
A highly absorbent form of carbon, used to remove odors and toxic
substances from gaseous emissions or liquid effluent.
Knowledge actually possessed by an individual who is a real person,
rather than an entity. Actual knowledge is to be distinguished from constructive knowledge
that is knowledge imputed to an individual or entity.
|Additional Inspection Services
Those services offered in addition to the mold inspection as defined
by MAA standards, including but not limited to the following examples: wood destroying
insect-organism and home inspection testing.
Constitute, or potentially constitute, a negative or destructive
|Air Clearance Testing
The process of measuring the microbial and fungal content of a
specific volume of air in a given period of time, and is performed prior to encapsulation
of the work area.
Substance (such as mold) that can cause an allergic reaction because
of an individuals sensitivity to that substance. See Anaphylaxis. Response
varies with individuals, and is dependent upon factors such as familial predisposition,
length and dose of exposure(s), prior sensitization, age and route of exposure. Reactions
may vary from immediate (minutes) to delayed (hours to days). Reactions are classified
into four types: Type I, II, III and IV, but allergic disease may be caused by more than
Inflammation of the mucous membranes in the nose that is caused by
an allergic reaction.
This mold is a very common Type I and Type III allergen with an IgE
mediated response. This particular mold may cross-react with Ulocladium, Stemphylium,
Phoma, and other molds. This mold is often found in carpets, textiles and on
horizontal surfaces in building interiors. This mold is often found on window frames.
Outdoors, where this mold is commonly found in samples, the mold may be isolated from
samples of soil, seeds and plants. The large spore size 20-200 microns in length and 7-18
microns in size, suggests that the spores from this mold will deposit in the nose, mouth
and upper respiratory tract. This mold has been related to Bakers asthma and
hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This mold is also characterized by colonies of dark olive
green to brown; floccose to velvety (heavily sporulating). The species of this mold that
is known as Alternaria alternata is capable of producing tenuazonic acid and other
toxic metabolites associated with disease in humans or animals. This mold is a common
cause of extrinsic asthma (immediate-type hypersensitivity: Type I). Acute symptoms from
this mold include edema and bronchiospasms; chronic cases may develop pulmonary emphysema,
nasal lesions, subcutaneous lesions, nail infections; especially in persons with
underlying disease or in those taking immuno-suppressing drugs.
Represents a morphological category of mold spores that are produced
by many unrelated molds when difficult to analyze by true type. A non-filamentous mold
spore with no septations and with no projections longer than the mold spore body (does not
include strongly curved mold spores or very long mold spores).
Hypersensitivity to a foreign substance induced by a small
preliminary or sensitizing injection or exposure to a substance.
Tiny scales of animal skin.
American National Standards Institute
A household device operated by use of electricity or gas. Not
included in this definition are components covered under central heating, central cooling
Air purifying respirator.
About 20 species of this mold are found in soil and decomposing
plant material. These mold spores are easily borne by wind. One species of this mold is an
allergen. This mold grows well on general fungal media. This mold is white, floccose,
spreading, and develops round brown to black mold spore clusters with time.
There are more than 3,000 genera of this mold species and are found
everywhere in nature. The mold spores are predominantly forcibly discharged during periods
of high humidity or rain. As an allergen they are highly variable, depending on genus and
species. As a potential opportunist or pathogen these molds are dependent on genus and
species, but the vast majority do not cause disease. The potential for toxin production is
very many, again, dependent on genus and species. These molds are frequently found growing
indoors on damp substrates.
This mold species is only occasionally pathogenic.
This mold species is found in warm soils, grain and in the secondary
decay of vegetation. This mold is associated with respiratory complaints in a recent house
investigation. Produces the toxin petulin, which is associated with disease in humans and
This mold species is only occasionally pathogenic.
This mold is found in soils and animal manure. This mold species
produces the toxin petulin, which is associated with disease in humans and other animals.
This mold species is only occasionally pathogenic.
This mold species is only occasionally pathogenic.
This mold grows on moldy corn and peanuts. This mold can be found in
warm soil, foods and dairy products. Some of the molds strains are capable of
producing a group of mycotoxins in the aflatoxin group. Aflatoxins are known animal
carcinogens. The toxin is poisonous to humans by ingestion. Exposure to this mold may also
result in occupational disease via inhalation. Experiments have indicated that this mold
is teratogenic and mutagenic. This species of mold is toxic to the liver. This mold is
also allergenic and the molds presence is associated with reports of asthma. This
mold can be found in water-damaged carpets. The production of the fungal toxin is
dependent on the growth conditions and on the substrate used as a food source. This mold
is associated with aspergillosis of the lungs and/or disseminated aspergillosis. This mold
is occasionally identified as the cause of corneal, otomycotic and naso-orbital infections
This mold is a major cause of allergenic bronchopulmonary
aspergillosis and allergic fungal sinusitis. Both invasive and allergic aspergillosis are
caused by this organism. Aspergillosis affects individuals who are immuno-compromised.
This mold is considered to be a human pathogen. The mold grows well at 35 degrees
Centigrade. This mold is commonly found outdoors in compost piles with temperatures higher
than 40 degrees Centigrade, in mild to warm soils and on cereals.
This mold species is commonly found outdoors in the winter. This
mold is reported to be allergenic. This species of mold is only occasionally pathogenic.
This mold is hardy enough that it can grow on leather. This mold species can grow at low
moisture levels on grains, sugary food products, meat and wool. The ascomycetous state is Eurotium
This mold is found in mild to warm soils and on slowly decaying
plants. This mold can produce the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin. This mold toxin has been
shown to produce liver and kidney damage in lab animals. This species of mold is
associated with aspergillosis of the lungs and/or disseminated aspergillosis and is only
This mold is a less common cause of aspergillosis. This species of
mold has a musty odor. The mold is commonly found in the environment on textiles, in
soils, grains, fruits and vegetables. This species of mold causes skin and pulmonary
infections and is a common cause of fungal-related ear infections otomycosis. This
mold produces the toxins malformin C and oxalic acid.
This species of mold is found in grains, soil and salted food
products. This particular mold is not usually associated with decaying vegetation. This
mold produces the kidney toxin ochratoxin A, which may produce ochratoxicosis in humans.
This is also known as Balkan nephropathy. The mold toxin is produced at optimum growth
conditions at 25 degrees Centigrade and high moisture conditions. The ochratoxin may also
be produced by other Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. of molds. Other
toxins produced by this species of mold include penicillic acid, xanthomegnin and
viomellenin. These are all kidney and liver toxins.
This species of mold is only occasionally pathogenic.
Some strains of this mold are capable of producing a group of
mycotoxins in the aflatoxin group. Aflatoxins are known animal carcinogens. The
mold toxin is poisonous to humans by ingestion. Mold toxin experiments have indicated that
this mold is teratogenic and mutagenic. This mold is toxic to the liver. The production of
the mold toxin is dependent on the growth conditions and on the substrate used as a food
This mold can grow in areas with low water activity. This species of
mold is found in house dust and food.
This species of mold is only occasionally pathogenic.
These species are known to be both Type I and Type III allergenic.
Members of this genus of mold cause ear, corneal and respiratory infections. Many of the
molds species produce mycotoxins that may be associated with disease in humans and
other animals. Mold toxin production is dependent on the mold species or a strain within a
mold species and on the food source. Some of these mold toxins have been found to be
carcinogenic in animal species. Several of the molds toxins are considered potential
human carcinogens. This mold is a common cause of extrinsic asthma (immediate-type
hypersensitivity: type I). Acute symptoms include edema and bronchiospasms; chronic cases
may develop pulmonary emphysema. Severe invasive disease is usually associated with
This mold species is only occasionally pathogenic.
This mold is found in warmer soil, grains, straw, cotton and
decomposing vegetation. This mold species produces the toxins petulin and citrinin that
are associated with disease in humans and other animals. Aleurospores 6-7 microns in
diameter may also be produced by this mold. This mold species is associated with
aspergillosis of the lungs and/or disseminated aspergillosis. This mold is found as an
isolate from otomycosis ear infection, and onychomycosis infection of
fingernails or toenails.
This mold species is only occasionally pathogenic. Produces the mold
This mold is commonly found in soil, hay, cotton and dairy products.
This mold species produces the mycotoxins sterigmatocystin and cyclopiaxonic acid, among
others. These mold toxins cause diarrhea and upset stomach. This mold is a kidney and
liver carcinogen. This mold species is only occasionally pathogenic.
A geographic area in which levels of a criteria air pollutant meet
the health-based primary standard (national ambient air quality standard, or NAAQS) for
the pollutant. An area may have an acceptable level for one criteria air pollutant, but
may have unacceptable levels for others. Thus, an area could be both attainment and
non-attainment at the same time. Attainment areas are defined using federal pollutant
limits set by the EPA. It has been estimated that 60% of Americans live in non-attainment
There are approximately 15 species of this mold which are ubiquitous
and cosmopolitan; and these mold species can be found in soil, forest soils, fresh water,
aerial portion of plants, fruit, marine estuary sediments and wood. This mold has wet mold
spores that can be disseminated by water droplet or wind (when dried out). This mold is a
common allergen for Type I allergies and Type III hypersensitivity pneumonitis; also
connected with Humidifier Fever and Sauna Takers Lung. There have been rare reports
of isolates from this species of mold from skin lesions, keratitis, spleen abscess in a
lymphoma patient, blood isolate from a leukemic patient. This mold is widespread, where
moisture accumulates, especially bathrooms and kitchens, on shower curtains, tile grout,
windowsills, textiles, and liquid waste materials. This mold grows well on general fungal
media samples. This mold is yeast-like, beginning cream to pink, becoming dark brown with
Fungal mold spores which are from mushrooms. The specific mushroom
species cannot be identified on the culture plate. Many mushroom spores are allergenic.
These fungi consist of approximately 1,200 genera, which are
ubiquitous and cosmopolitan; found in gardens, forests and woodlands. These fungal spores
are disseminated by wind; mold spore release (active mechanism) during periods of high
humidity or rain. These fungal species are common allergens for Type I allergies and Type
III hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Asexual forms of these fungal spores may cause rare
opportunistic infections. Mushroom poisoning is usually a result of ingestion. The yeast, Cryptococcus
neoformans is a basidiomycete. Serpula lacrimans, the agent of "dry
rot," and other fungi causing white and brown wood rot, grow and destroy the
structural wood of buildings. Poria incrassata causes a particularly destructive
dry rot in buildings. Occasionally, a benign, non-wood rotting mushroom will fruit inside
a structure, growing in a unique ecological niche if enough moisture is present.
These molds are found worldwide and there are approximately 4-5
species. These species of mold are found in plant debris, soil and dung. They are a
parasite of insects. As dry mold spores, they are easily disseminated by wind. These molds
are known as allergens for Type I allergies. As a potential opportunist or pathogen there
have been rare isolations of this mold from corneal lesions, and lungs from an
immuno-compromised patient. This mold has infrequent growth indoors. The mold is a
pathogen of silk worms and other insects. This species of mold forms small, mounded
delicate colonies, and are often colorless.
Described as those airborne particles that are living organisms, and
include microorganisms (i.e., culturable, non-culturable, and dead microorganisms) and
fragments, toxins, and particulate waste products from all varieties of living things.
Substance or chemical that kills organisms such as molds.
The ability of a substance to be broken down physically and/or
chemically by microorganisms.
Refers to a substance of biological origin that is capable of
producing an effect, whether infection or hypersensitivity, irritant, inflammatory or
The presence of biologically-derived aerosols, gases and vapors of a
kind and concentration likely to cause disease or predispose persons to adverse health
effects; and/or inappropriate concentrations of outdoor bioaerosols; and/or indoor
biological growth and remnants of growth that may become airborne and to which people may
|Biological Hazardous Wastes
Any substance of a human or animal origin, other than food wastes,
which is to be disposed of and could harbor or transmit pathogenic organisms, including
but not limited to pathological specimens such as tissues, blood elements, excreta,
secretions, bandages, and related substances.
|Biologically Derived Airborne
Describes bioaerosols, gases and vapors that living organisms
Use of microorganisms to remove or detoxify toxic or unwanted
chemicals and unwanted organisms in an environment.
A mold with large spores that deposits in the upper respiratory
tract. This species of mold produces the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin, which has been shown
to produce liver and kidney damage when ingested by laboratory animals. There are
approximately 20 known species of this mold. The molds colonies are shades of dark
gray to brown.
This mold is a human pathogen. The mold is commonly found in soil.
It is a dimorphic species of mold that has filamentous fungus when grown at 25 degrees
Centigrade and a yeast form at 37 degrees Centigrade.
This mold is allergenic for Type I allergies and Type III
hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This mold is connected with Winegrowers lung. This
species of mold is parasitic on plants and soft fruits. This mold is found in soil and on
vegetables and fruits such as grapes, strawberries, lettuce, cabbage and onions. This mold
is also a plant pathogen and saprophyte on flowers, leaves, stems. This mold is only a
very rare agent of keratomycosis. This species of mold may be found in conjunction with
indoor plants. This mold grows well on all general fungal media samples. The mold colony
spreads easily over the surface of a petri dish. This mold may form black sclerotia. This
species of mold is associated with allergic symptoms (skin tests). This mold is found
primarily in temperate and subtropical regions with approximately 30 species. As a dry
mold spore it is easily disseminated by wind and also liberated by rain splash.
|Building Related Illness (BRI)
A discrete, identifiable disease, illness or condition in which
occupants have a more serious illness that fails to improve when leaving the building and
can sometimes be traced back to specific sources of causal agents or pollutants.
A material produced without separate commercial intent during the
manufacture or processing of other materials or mixtures. May also be a substance created
by metabolic reaction of chemical or living organisms, or by the degradation of chemicals,
living organisms, or inert products.
Clean Air Act. Federal law enacted to regulate/reduce air pollution.
Administered by the EPA.
Part of the normal flora of mouth and other mucous membranes in the
body. Thrush and other diseases caused by Candida albicans usually occur after
prolonged treatment with antibiotics or steroids. The environment is not a likely source
of exposure for this fungus. Cells from the organism are usually not airborne. It is an
A general term meaning agents that cause cancer. Also, a specific
list of materials compiled by the U.S. Public Health Service that are known or suspected
to be carcinogenic.
See Acremonium sp.
There are approximately 56 species, both genera, of these molds.
These molds are found in commercial lumber, and are tree and plant pathogens. Wet mold
spores are disseminated by insects. As allergens these molds have not been studied.
Persons most likely to be affected by these molds would be lumberyard workers or
carpenters. However, these molds can be found in most homes built with lumber on areas of
wood framing inside the walls. Ophiostoma ulmi mold species is the cause of Dutch
Elm Disease. A connection between Ophiostoma and the human pathogen Sporothrix
schenckii has been proposed but not yet confirmed.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act
(also referred to as Superfund). Specifically, an act that affixed joint, several and
strict liability for individuals, corporations and/or owners/operators for any site which
has been declared to be an "imminent hazard" to human health or the environment.
There are approximately 2,000 forms of this species of mold,
according to the plant host. This mold is a parasite of higher plants, causing leaf spot.
As a dry mold spore it is disseminated by wind. As an allergen this mold has not been
studied; however, there was one report of human infection in Indonesia. This mold has not
been seen as a growth indoors and is common outdoors in agricultural areas, especially
Code of Federal Regulations
There are approximately 81 species of this mold. This is a large
ascomycetous mold producing perithecia. This mold species is found in soil, seed,
cellulose substrates, dung, and woody and straw materials. This mold is found on a variety
of substrates containing cellulose, including paper, paper in sheetrock, and plant
compost. The mold spores are found inside fruiting bodies and are forced out an opening
and spread by wind, insects and water splash. This mold is Type I allergenic. This species
of mold produces an Acremonium-like state on fungal media samples. It is an uncommon agent
of onychomycosis (nail infection). This mold also produces the toxins chaetomin and
sterigmatocystin. Other compounds produced by this mold include a variety of mutagens.
This molds small brown "lemon" or "football-shaped" ascospores
Evidence suggests that some people may develop health problems
characterized by effects such as dizziness, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness,
and nasal congestion that appear whenever they are exposed to certain chemicals. People
may react to trace amounts of chemicals to which they have become "sensitized."
Continuous culture system.
This mold is found on the leaves of tomatoes.
This mold is found on dead plants, woody plants, food, straw, soil,
paint and textiles.
This mold is found on dead plants, woody plants, food, straw, soil,
paint and textiles.
There are approximately 28-40 species of this well-known mold. This
species of mold is most commonly identified outdoors. The outdoor numbers of mold spores
are reduced in the winter, while the numbers of mold spores are often high in the summer.
However, this mold is often found indoors in mold spore number counts less than those
outdoors. This mold is a dry mold spore that is formed in very fragile chains and easily
dispersed by the wind. This species of mold is a common Type I and Type III allergen.
Indoor Cladosporium sp. may be different than the mold species identified outdoors.
This mold is commonly found on the surface of fiberglass duct liner in the interior of
supply ducts and on moist windowsills. A wide variety of plants are food sources for this
mold. This mold can be found on dead plants, woody plants, food, straw, soil, paint and
textiles. This mold can cause mycosis. This mold species is characterized by a wide
variation in size and shape. This mold has spores with dark attachment scars and some
olive to brown pigmentation. Some species of this mold sporulate better than others, and
some may need cycles of light in order to produce mold spores. This species of mold
produces greater than 10 antigens. Antigens in commercial extracts that are produced by
this mold are of variable quality and may degrade within weeks of preparation. This mold
is a common cause of extrinsic asthma (immediate-type hypersensitivity: Type I). Acute
symptoms include edema and bronchiospasms, chronic cases may develop pulmonary emphysema.
This mold is found as a secondary invader of plants, food, soil,
paint and textiles.
These types of mold are recovered from a wide range of ecological
niches with approximately 700 genera. These molds are saprophytic or parasitic on higher
plants, other fungi, other molds, lichens and vertebrates. The molds conidial masses
may be dry or slimy and are spread by insects, water splash and wind. These molds are
known as allergens for Type I allergies. Cross-reactivity is suspected between Phoma and
Alternaria mold species. As a potential opportunist or pathogen these molds are
dependent on genus and species, but the vast majority do not cause disease. These molds
can be found on many substrates indoors, including ceiling tile, linoleum. However, these
molds may have little effect on the indoor air because in many genera the mold spores are
not readily disseminated by air currents. These molds are sometimes referred to as
"pycnidial formers." The mold spores are often formed in sticky masses or exuded
in mucoid droplets.
Any liquid having a flash point above 100 degrees Fahrenheit as
determined by tests.
This mold causes a chronic inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa
Any portable device in which a material is stored, transported,
treated, disposed or otherwise handled.
The degradation of natural water, air or soil quality as a result of
mans activities, to the extent that its usefulness is impaired.
A document setting forth an organized, planned and coordinated
course of action to be followed in order to prevent pollution in case of fire, explosion
or discharge of hazardous waste constituents which could threaten human health and the
The tracking of the source, quantity, concentration and type of
hazardous waste from generation through final disposition.
A seal applied to an opening connecting a remediation area with an
adjacent space that is not included in the containment.
This mold is found on the bark of maple and sycamore trees and on
This mold causes disseminated and pulmonary infections in
A device to allow ingress and egress from one room to another while
minimizing air movement between the rooms under diminished air pressure.
This mold is most commonly found in tropical and subtropical regions
with approximately 30 mold species. This mold is found on plant debris, soil, facultative
plant pathogens of tropical or subtropical plants. As a dry mold spore they are
disseminated by wind. This mold is commonly allergenic for Type I allergies and relatively
common cause of allergic fungal sinusitis. This mold may cause corneal infections. This
mold is occasionally the cause of onychomycosis, ocular keratitis, sinusitis, mycetomas,
pneumonia, endocarditis, cerebral abscess and disseminated infection. Most cases are from
immuno-compromised patients. This mold can be found on a variety of indoor substrates.
This species of mold grows well on general fungal media; most isolates need
"light/dark cycling" for sporulation. The mold colonies are shades of gray to
brown; mold spores are distinctively curved.
Breakdown of a material or substance (by heat, chemical reaction,
electrolysis, decay or other processes) into parts or elements or simpler compounds.
The process of making any person, object or area safe by absorbing,
destroying, neutralizing or making harmless by removing biological or chemical agents.
A series of connected rooms under diminished air pressure with
curtained doorways between any two adjacent rooms, for the microbial remediation of
materials and equipment, and the decontamination of workers.
Mold spores that are brown to black from melanin pigments.
Concrete, brick, asphalt, and other such building materials
discarded in the demolition of a building or other improvement to property.
Any condition that, in the opinion of the inspector, may likely be
unsafe, unhealthy, or in any way harmful to the inspector, the occupants or to components
of the property.
A multicellular mold spore with septations that intersect in more
than one plane. These are also called muriform mold spores.
A mold spore with only two cells (does not include strongly curved
mold spores or very long mold spores).
Solid waste, garbage and rubbish, which originate in residential
There are approximately 20 known species of this mold. This mold is
found on grasses, grains, soil, plant debris and decaying food. This mold is occasionally
a cause of Phaeohyphomycosis, including keratitis, sinusitis and osteomyelitis. These
infections most often occur in immuno-compromised persons, although infections also occur
in normal hosts. One case of brain abscess was reported in an immuno-compromised patient.
This mold can occasionally cause a corneal infection of the eye. This mold species is a
Type I allergen and common cause of allergic fungal sinusitis. Dry mold spores are
disseminated by wind. This mold grows on a variety of substrates. Mold colonies are shades
of dark gray to brown.
The process of inquiring into the environmental characteristics of a
parcel of commercial real estate or other conditions, usually in connection with a
commercial real estate transaction. The degree and kind of due diligence vary for
different properties and differing purposes.
A land site at which waste is disposed of in a manner that does not
protect the environment, is susceptible to open burning, or is exposed to the elements,
vermin and/or scavengers.
Structure or portion thereof used for residential habitation.
(1) Solid, liquid or gas wastes which enter the environment as a
by-product of man-oriented processes. (2) The discharge or outflow of water from ground or
The sealing of contaminated surfaces involving the application of an
encapsulant material. The complete enclosure of a waste in another material in such a way
as to isolate it from external effects such as those of water or air.
The procedure necessary to completely enclose contaminated material
under diminished air pressure with impermeable, permanent barriers.
A charge, security, or encumbrance upon title to a property to
secure the payment of a cost, damage, debt, obligation or duty arising out of response
actions, cleanup or other remediation of hazardous substances or petroleum products upon a
Person possessing sufficient training and experience necessary to
conduct a site reconnaissance, interviews and other activities in accordance with this
practice, and from the information generated by such activities, having the ability to
develop opinions and conclusions regarding recognized environmental conditions in
connection with the property in question. An individuals status as an environmental
professional may be limited to the type of assessment to be performed or to specific
segments of the assessment for which the professional is responsible. The person may be an
independent contractor or an employee of the user.
|Environmental Site Assessment
The process by which a person or entity seeks to determine if a
particular parcel of real property (including improvements) is subject to recognized
environmental conditions. At the option of the user, an environmental site assessment may
include more inquiry than that constituting appropriate inquiry or, if the user is not
concerned about qualifying for the innocent landowner defense, less inquiry than that
constituting appropriate inquiry. An environmental site assessment is both different from
and less rigorous than an environmental audit.
Environmental Protection Agency. Federal agency with environmental
protection regulatory and enforcement authority. Administers the Clean Air Act, Clean
Water Act, FIFRA, RCRA, TSCA, CERCLA and other federal environmental laws.
This mold is a common allergen for Type I allergies. No cases of
infection have been reported in humans or animals by this mold species. However, this mold
produces antibiotic substances such as flavipin, epicorazine A & B,
indole-3-acetonitrile. There are 2 known species of this mold, and as a dry mold spore can
be disseminated by wind or released by hygroscopic movement. This mold is found in plants,
soil, grains, textiles and paper products. This mold is also a secondary invader of
damaged plant tissue. This mold is found on many different substrates indoors, including
paper, textiles and insects. This mold grows well on general fungal media, although
sporulation may be strain-dependent. Mold colonies typically have orange reverse pigment.
This mold causes infections of skin and nails.
A decontamination enclosure system of materials and equipment,
typically consisting of a designated area of work, a washroom and an uncontaminated area.
To ascertain, judge, or form an opinion about an item or condition.
See Drechslera and Bipolaris. There are approximately
8 species of this mold that are known to exist.
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. Regulations
administered by EPA under this act require that certain useful poisons, such as chemical
pesticides, sold to the public contain labels that carry health hazard warnings to protect
The lowland that borders a river, which is usually dry, but is
subject to flooding when the stream overflows its banks.
The base upon which the structure or a wall rests; usually masonry,
concrete, or stone, and generally partially underground.
A group of mycotoxins produced by certain mold species of Fusarium.
The most prevalent and toxic is Fumonisin B1, which is a known contaminant of
corn and corn products. Studies have confirmed its role in serious animal diseases and
have suggested carcinogenic, gastrointestinal and negative developmental effects in
The action for which an item, component or system is specially
fitted or used or for which an item, component or system exists; to be in action or
perform a specific task.
Performing, or able to perform, a function.
A drain is functional when it empties in a reasonable amount of time
and is not subject to overflow when one of its supply faucets is left on.
Sufficient water flow to provide uninterrupted supply to the
highest, unrestricted tap (faucet furthest from the source) when a single intermediate,
unrestricted tap is operated simultaneously with uninterrupted flow.
Fungi are neither animals nor plants and are classified in a kingdom
of their own. Fungi include some molds, some mildews, some yeasts, mushrooms and
puffballs. Fungi and molds may be used interchangeably by some professionals, but it is
not recommended. It is estimated that millions of species of fungi exist.
Substance or chemical that kills fungi.
There are approximately 50-70 species of this mold. These species
have wet mold spores disseminated by insects, water splash and wind when dried out. This
mold is common in soil. This mold is found on a wide range of plants. This mold is often
found in humidifiers and occasionally on a variety of substrates. This mold requires very
wet conditions. Mold colonies are shades of pink to orange to purple. The molds
colors are due to both soluble pigments and mycelial pigments. Several species in this
genus of mold produce potent trichothecene toxins. The trichothecene (scirpene) toxin
targets the following systems of the human body: circulatory, alimentary, skin and nervous
systems. This mold species produces vomitoxin on grains during unusually damp growing
conditions. Symptoms occur either through ingestion of contaminated grains or inhalation
of the mold spores. This mold genera produces hemorrhagic syndrome in humans (alimentary
toxic aleukia). Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dermatitis and extensive internal bleeding
characterize this syndrome. This mold is Type I allergenic. This mold is also frequently
involved in eye, skin and nail infections. This mold species causes keratitis,
endophthalmitis, onychomycosis, mycetoma and disseminated infection in immuno-compromised
patients, infections in burn victims, and systemic opportunistic infections on severely
This mold is a common contaminant of grains, fruits, dairy products,
paper, textiles, soil and water, and often present as part of the normal human flora. The
mold species Geotrichum candidum causes a secondary infection (geotrichosis) in
association with tuberculosis. This rare disease causes lesions of the skin, bronchi,
mouth, lung and intestine.
A mold that is structurally similar to Penicillium sp. This
mold is Type I allergenic.
Major structural components of fungal cell walls. They are being
investigated as contributors to symptoms reported in structures. Some effects are
headache, and non-specified respiratory symptoms.
In a condition suitable for human habitation.
Rooms or spaces used for sitting, sleeping, bathing, toilets,
eating, cooking or other human day-to-day activity. Not considered habitable spaces by
MAA standards are storage spaces, unfinished attics and crawl spaces.
In a broad sense, any substance or mixture of substances having
properties capable of producing adverse effects on human health or safety.
A waste, or combination of wastes, which because of its quantity,
concentration, toxicity, corrosiveness, mutagenicity or flammability, or physical,
chemical, or infectious characteristics may (1) cause, or significantly contribute to an
increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible
illness; or (2) pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the
environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, or disposed of, or otherwise
|Hazardous Waste Site
A location where hazardous wastes are stored, treated, incinerated,
or otherwise disposed of.
A heat source may be a radiator, convector unit, radiant panel, heat
pipe, ductwork, grille, register or other device(s) from which heat is intended to be
A strongly curved or spiral mold spore.
This mold is reported to be allergenic. This species of mold is
rare. See the species Drechslera, and Bipolaris.
High Efficiency Particulate Air
A High Efficiency Particulate Arrestor filter capable of trapping
and retaining 99.97% of particulates larger than 0.3 microns in size.
|HEPA Vacuum Equipment
Vacuuming equipment equipped with a HEPA filtration system.
A mold that has filamentous growth at 25 degrees Centigrade and
yeast growth at 37 degrees Centigrade. This mold is a human pathogen. Also, this mold
species may be associated with birds.
This mold grows on products with a high cellulose content. These
molds are also found in soil and on plant debris.
A respiratory illness caused by exposure to molds producing toxins
from microorganisms found in wet or moist areas in humidifiers and air conditioners. Also
called air conditioner or ventilation fever.
Sterile mycelia that is white or transparent. No fruiting structures
are produced by the mycelia. Visual identification of these organisms is not possible.
Often associated with allergic symptoms.
Great or excessive sensitivity.
A group of respiratory diseases that cause inflammation of the lung
(specifically granulomatous cells). Most forms of hypersensitivity pneumonitis are caused
by the inhalation of organic dusts, including molds.
|Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)
As defined by the EPA: "an optimum indoor environmental
condition that contains the lowest possible levels of a broad scope of indoor air
pollutants to satisfy the health, comfort and well-being of the vast majority of occupants
in any type building at any given time. It is a dynamic interplay within the building
environment. This interplay occurs between the building envelope, systems, furnishings,
and space utilization by occupants and equipment. IAQ is also influenced by the
surrounding environmental conditions."
The readily accessible areas of the structures, site, and components
included in the inspection process.
Performing or able to perform the usual function for which an item
is designed or fitted; and be in a condition (state of repair) appropriate to this
function, its age and location. Or, performing or able to perform the usual function for
which a professional is designated or certified.
A strain of an organism brought into pure culture (i.e., isolated)
from a specific environment.
A place, location, tract of land, area or premises used for the
disposal of solid wastes as defined by state solid waste regulations. The term is
synonymous with the term solid waste disposal site and is also known as garbage dump,
trash dump, or similar term.
A symbiotic association between green or blue-green algal cells and
|Local Street Directories
Directories published by private (or sometimes government) sources
that show ownership, occupancy, and/or use of sites by reference to street addresses.
Often local street directories are available at libraries of local governments, colleges
or universities, or historical societies.
There are approximately five known species of this mold and
its dry mold spores are disseminated by wind. This mold can be found in plant
litter, soil, many types of plants and trees. This mold is found on a variety of
substrates indoors. This mold is cellulolytic. This species of mold is also very closely
related to Stachybotrys. M. echinata mold species produces acetic
acid. This mold produces tricothecenes and griseofulvins. This mold grows on general
fungal media, forming dark gray to black colonies. The mold spores do not slime down but
are held in long chains.
Synonymous with "remediation." Procedure(s) to decrease or
eliminate fungal genera from microbiologically contaminated building material(s). Includes
enclosures, removal and encapsulation. The process of removing or eliminating the
This mold causes ringworm in humans.
Molds are a group of organisms that at the present time belong to
the kingdoms of Fungi and Protista. Some professionals may use the terms fungi and mold
interchangeably, but it is not recommended. The MAA is of the opinion that Molds should
be in a kingdom of their own. There are hundreds of thousands of species of mold. Molds
reproduce by making spores. Mold spores waft through the indoor and outdoor air
continually. When mold spores land on a damp spot indoors, they may begin growing by
digesting the by-products left behind by other organisms on any substance, providing
moisture and oxygen are present.
In the mold inspection, the process by which a certified mold
inspector visually examines the readily accessible areas and components of a home
utilizing accepted Standards of Practice as a guideline.
A specialized analytical report which compares results of outdoor
air samples to typical outdoor mold spore level values across the North American continent
for the month of the report and the typical outdoor mold spore level values for an entire
year for the State in which the samples were taken.
This mold is allergenic. This species of mold produces soft rot of
tree fruits. Other members produce a red bread mold. This mold is infrequently involved in
corneal eye infections.
Colorless or with some pigment other than melanin.
Microbial volatile organic compound; a chemical produced by molds
that may have a moldy, musty, earthy, rotten or sour odor.
There are approximately 50 known species of this mold. This mold is
disseminated by rain splash. This mold species is often found in soil, dead plant
material, horse dung, fruits and fruit juice. This mold is also found in leather, meat,
dairy products, animal hair and jute. This mold is a Zygomycete that is Type I and Type
III allergenic (skin and bronchial tests). This organism and other Zygomycetes will grow
rapidly on most fungal media samples and frequently fill the petri dish. This mold species
may overgrow and inhibit other molds present. They are most often round, colorless mold
spores, variable in size and are sometimes angular. This mold may cause mucorosis in
immuno-compromised individuals. The sites of infection from this mold are lung, nasal
sinus, brain, eye and skin. Infection may have multiple sites.
Also known as dictyospores. These are multicellular mold spores with
septations that intersect in more than one plane.
There are approximately eight known species of this mold, and as a
wet mold spore, is disseminated by insects, water splash and wind when dried out. This
mold can be found on grasses, plants and soil; on decaying fruiting bodies of Russula
mushrooms. This mold has been identified as an indoor contaminant. However, occurrence of
this mold is rare. As an allergen this mold species has not been studied and there have
been no reports of human infection, but the mold produces the tricothecenes verrucarins
and roridins. The mold spores have a grayish green pigment.
There are approximately 45 known genera of mold in this category.
These organisms have both dry and wet mold spores and wind disperses the dry fruiting body
of the mold spores, whereas the wet amoebic phase is motile. These molds can be found on
decaying logs, stumps and dead leaves, particularly in forested regions. These molds are
occasionally found indoors. However, these molds do not grow on general fungal media and
are difficult to distinguish from the smuts. These molds are reported to be allergens for
Type I allergies, but there have been no reports of human infection. These molds have an
interesting life cycle, which includes a wet mold spore phase and a dry mold spore phase.
When conditions are favorable, these molds move about like amoebae, resembling primitive
animals. When conditions are not favorable these molds form a resting body (sclerotium)
with dry, airborne mold spores. These molds belong to the kingdom of Protista.
A fungus that kills the cells of a living host and then utilizes
them as a source of nutrients.
This mold genera is especially abundant in warm climates with
approximately 4-5 known species. These species of mold have an active discharge mechanism
that does not require wind or rain. This mold can be found in decaying plant material and
soil, but rarely found growing indoors. This mold is allergenic for Type I allergies, and
with very rare reports of human infection. This mold is distinctive as being white,
floccose, spreading, and developing black mold spore clusters with time.
National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety
These types of molds can be found growing indoors on a variety of
substrates. However, individual identification is not possible without sporulation.
Potentially, all molds are capable of producing a non-sporulating state. Many molds do not
adapt well to routine mycologic media and growth conditions and, therefore, may not
sporulate. Specialized media, light-dark cycles, UV light and low or high temperatures may
be required to stimulate sporulation. Unless distinctive spore types are formed,
identification may not be possible. Frequently, non-sporulating colonies are produced by
Basidiomycetes (mushrooms) that usually do not produce fruiting structures on lab media.
They may produce clamp connections and/or arthroconidia within their mycelia.
Non-sporulating mycelia may appear as colorless or pigmented (brown).
To see through visually directed attention.
To cause equipment, systems or supplies to perform their intended
Chemicals that contain carbon. Volatile organic compounds vaporize
at room temperature and pressure. They are found in many indoor sources, including many
common household products and building materials.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration of the U.S. Department
of Labor. Federal agency with safety and health regulatory and enforcement authorities for
most U.S. industry and business. Code of Federal Regulations Title 29.
Approximately 9-30 species of this mold, depending on taxonomic
system. This mold is commonly found in soil and dust, less frequently in air. This mold is
also found in decaying plant material, composting processes, legumes and cotton seeds.
Some species of this mold parasitize insects. P. variotii variety of this
mold can cause paecilomycosis. This mold is linked to Wood-Trimmers disease and
humidifier-associated illnesses. This mold is Type I and Type III allergenic. Some members
of this genus of mold are reported to cause pneumonia. Mycotic keratitis in conjunction
with corneal implants, nosocomial infections, endocarditis, infections in
immuno-compromised patients are reported. This mold may produce arsine gas if growing on
arsenic substrate. This can occur on wallpapers covered with Paris Green. This mold
produces 8 toxins, and is closely related to Penicillium. Some species of this mold
produce distinctive pigments such as ocher and lilac, but do not product blue or
Powered Air Purifying Respirator
This mold is found in soil, textiles, decaying plants, manure and
An agent that causes disease, especially a microorganism such as a
bacterium, fungi or mold; capable of causing disease.
There are approximately 200 species of this mold that are known to
exist. A wide number of organisms have been placed in this genera of mold. Identification
to species of this mold is often difficult. The mold spores are dry and easily
disseminated by wind and insects. These mold spores serve as a food source for storage
mites. Mold colonies are usually shades of blue, green and white. This genera of mold is
often found in aerosol samples. This mold is commonly found in soil, house dust, food,
cellulose, grains, paint and behind paint, compost piles, carpet, wallpaper and wallpaper
glue, decaying fabrics, moist chipboards and interior fiberglass duct insulation; Penicillium
glabrum has been isolated from diesel fuel. This mold grows abundantly in
water-damaged structures. This mold causes hypersensitivity pneumonitis and allergic
alveolitis in susceptible individuals. This mold is Type I and Type III allergenic (skin).
Some species of this mold produce mycotoxins. This mold is a common cause of extrinsic
asthma (immediate-type hypersensitivity: Type I). Acute symptoms include edema and
bronchiospasms; chronic cases may develop pulmonary emphysema. This mold has been
associated with Cheese Washers Lung, Woodmans Lung, and Moldy Wall
Hypersensitivity. Penicillium marneffei is a cause of human infection. This mold
produces 19 known various toxins by the different species. Penicillium commune
produces the MVOC 2-methyl-isoborneol, a heavy musty odor.
There are approximately 20 species of this mold and the mold spores
are dry and disseminated by wind. This mold can be found in soil, blackened and dead
herbaceous stems and leaf spots, grasses, rushes and sedges. This mold is almost always
associated with other molds. One rare case of mycotic keratitis was reported. This mold is
rarely found growing indoors. Mold colonies are similar to those of Cladosporium sp.
This mold is a common indoor air allergen of Type I and Type III.
This mold is similar to the early stages of growth of Chaetomium sp. and is
characterized by sticky, oozy masses of mold spores. The species of this mold are isolated
from soil and associated plants (particularly potatoes), and are a fruit parasite. There
are approximately 80 species of this mold, which are disseminated by insects and by wind
when dried out. This mold produces pink and purple spots on painted walls. This mold has
antigens that cross-react with those of Alternaria sp. This mold will grow on
butter, paint, cement, rubber, ceiling tiles, on the reverse side of linoleum, paper,
wood, wool and on foods such as rice. This mold causes phaeohyphomycosis, a systemic or
subcutaneous disease. This mold is associated with Shower Curtain Hypersensitivity,
mycotic keratitis, and rare skin infections.
A mold spore with two or more transverse septa (does not include
strongly curved mold spores or very long mold spores).
The cap of a mushroom.
This mold grows on dead grass in pastures and is common on dead
leaves of more than 50 different species of plants, especially leaf fodders, soil. There
are approximately 15 known species of this mold, and as a dry mold spore are disseminated
by wind. While rarely found growing indoors, this mold can grow on paper. This mold
produces the toxin sporidesmin. As an allergen this mold has not been studied and there
have been no reports of human infection. This mold causes facial eczema in ruminants
(sheep). This mold grows readily on general fungal media; sporulation may be slow and may
require a "light/dark cycle." Mold colonies are shades of tan to brown.
A mass of protoplasm formed by slime molds.
Polyethylene sheet material of the thickness indicated used for
protection of walls, floors, etc., and used to seal openings into work areas. Also used to
control ground moisture and to assist in proper crawl space air flow.
Contamination of air, water, land or other natural resources that
will or are likely to create a public nuisance or to render such air, water, land or other
natural resources harmful, detrimental or injurious to public health, safety or welfare,
or to domestic, municipal, commercial, industrial, agricultural, recreational, or other
legitimate beneficial uses, or to livestock, wild animals, birds, fish or other life.
Personal Protective Equipment
|Pressed Wood Products
A group of materials used in building and furniture construction
that are made from wood veneers, particles, or fibers bonded together with an adhesive
under heat and pressure.
The real property that is the subject of the environmental site
assessment described in this practice. Real property includes buildings and other fixtures
and improvements located on the property and affixed to the land.
A hollow, flask-shaped structure lined with conidiophores bearing
Growth from the center, e.g., of a fungal or mold colony.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. A federal act which gives
EPA the authority to develop a nationwide program to regulate hazardous waste from
"cradle to grave." Enacted in 1976, the act was established to "protect
human health and the environment from the improper handling of solid waste and encourage
resource conservation." Hazardous wastes under RCRA are either characteristic, e.g.,
ignitable or corrosive, or they are listed as hazardous and therefore regulated under EPA.
An item or component is readily accessible if, in the judgment of
the inspector or investigator, it is capable of being safely observed or occupied, without
movement of obstacles, detachment or disengagement of connecting or securing devices, or
other unsafe or difficult procedures to gain access.
To remove. This does not mean to fix or to improve or to replace. It
only means to remove, to take away, to take out; to get rid of defective or corrupted
components. Synonymous with "mitigation." Also, the act of removing contaminated
material(s) from a structure and depositing them in an appropriate location.
To fix or to improve by fixing; to make an adjustment or change to
To improve or make an adjustment or change through the exchange of
one item or kind with another, which may or may not be of the same type, make or model; to
bring to original likeness.
The minimum quantity of hazardous waste generated as a result of a
discharge or spill, which must be reported to the EPA or the National Response Center.
A sufficient number to serve as a typical or characteristic example
of the item(s) inspected.
A mold spore with prolonged survival potential, or a mold spore that
is in a state of dormancy.
To bring to original likeness or condition, whether by repair or
replacement. This does not mean to extract, remove or remediate. It only means to put back
to original condition.
There are approximately 10 known species of this mold. This mold is
a dry mold spore disseminated by wind. This mold can be found in soil, herbaceous
substrates and decaying wood. Occasionally this mold is found on a variety of substrates
indoors. One species of this mold is called the cellar mold, most commonly found on
brickwork and adjacent timber in wine cellars. This mold has very small, slow-growing
colonies and may be overlooked on crowded petri dishes or slides. As an allergen this mold
has not been studied and produces no known potential toxins. As a potential opportunist or
pathogen there have been 3 reported cases of subcutaneous infection.
A fine filamentous structure that grows into the substrate and
anchors the cell or surface mycelium.
This Zygomycete mold is allergenic. This mold may cause mucorosis in
immuno-compromised individuals. This mold occupies a biological niche similar to Mucor
sp. This mold is often linked to occupational allergy. This mold may cause mucorosis
in immuno-compromised individuals. The sites of infection are the lung, nasal sinus,
brain, eye and skin. Infection may have multiple sites.
There are approximately 12 species of this mold; dry mold spores are
disseminated by wind and are found in forest and cultivated soils, decaying fruits and
vegetables, animal dung, and compost. This Zygomycete mold is a major Type I and Type III
allergen. This mold may cause mucorosis in immuno-compromised individuals. This mold
occupies a biological niche similar to Mucor sp. and can be found on a variety of
substrates. This mold grows well on general fungal media samples and frequently fills a
petri dish. This species of mold may overgrow and inhibit other molds. Some of the mold
spore structures are visible to the naked eye as black dots in the middle of white,
cottony mycelia. This mold is often linked to occupational allergy. The sites of infection
are the lung, nasal sinus, brain, eye and skin, and infection may have multiple sites.
This mold is the principal cause of zygomycosis, which occurs primarily in patients
suffering from diabetic ketoacidosis (rhinocerebral disease), malnutrition, severe burns,
or who are immuno-compromised.
A reddish yeast mold typically found in moist environments such as
carpeting, cooling coils and drain pans. In some countries mold is the most common yeast
genus identified in indoor air. This yeast mold has been reported to be allergenic.
Positive skin tests have been reported. This yeast mold has colonized terminally ill
Solid wastes which are not liable to rot, consisting of both
combustible and non-combustible wastes, including paper, wrappings, cardboard, tin cans,
yard clippings, wood, glass, bedding, crockery and similar materials.
There are approximately 14 families of this mold, with 105 known
genera and more than 5,000 species. Rusts have both wet and dry mold spores. Wind
disperses the urediospores, teliospores, basidiospores and aeciospores. The basidiospores
and aeciospores have an active spore release mechanism. They can be found in grasses,
flowers, trees and other living plant materials. Rusts do not grow indoors unless their
host plants are present. The rust molds are parasitic plant pathogens and need a living
host for growth. Rusts have a complex life cycle, producing five different mold spore
types in two different plant hosts. Rusts do not grow on ordinary laboratory media; they
require a living host plant for growth. The rust molds are known allergens for Type I
allergies, but there have been no reports of human infection.
Using dead organisms as a source of nutrients.
This yeast mold is allergenic and associated with Bakers
A very long mold spore (includes both septate and non-septate mold
This mold may produce arsine gas if growing on arsenic substrate.
This can occur on wallpapers covered with Paris Green. This mold has been found growing on
a wide variety of materials including house dust. This mold is associated with Type III
Repeated or single exposure to an allergen that results in the
exposed individual becoming hypersensitive to the allergen.
A cross-wall within a hyphae.
This mold is a common cause of extrinsic asthma (immediate-type
hypersensitivity: Type I). Acute symptoms include edema and bronchiospasms. Chronic cases
may develop pulmonary emphysema.
An area, building, system or equipment is considered to be shut down
when its normal control device(s) will not cause it to become activated or operational, or
when conditions or changes prevent its normal operational/functional use.
|Sick Building Syndrome (SBS)
Term that usually refers to a set of symptoms or a condition that
affect some number of building occupants during the time they spend in the building and
can be alleviated, diminish, temporarily disappear or go away during periods when they
leave the building for the day or on weekends. Specific causal agents are not usually
defined. Cannot be traced to specific pollutants or sources within the building.
The property on which a facility is located. Two or more pieces of
property which are divided only by public or private right(s)-of-way and which are
otherwise geographically contiguous are considered a single site.
There are two families of this mold with more than 50 genera and
over 950 species. Wind disperses the powdery brown teliospores of smut. These molds are
found on cereal crops, grasses, weeds, other fungi and molds, and on other flower plants.
Smuts do not usually grow indoors. Smut molds are parasitic plant pathogens that require a
living host for the completion of their life cycle. Smuts are members of the
Basidiomycetes and have two mold spore types: teliospores (dry, powdery stage) and
basidiospores (yeast stage). Smut molds are known to be allergens for Type I allergies,
but there have been no reports of human infection by the plant parasitic forms.
|Solid Waste Disposal Site
Place, location, tract of land, area, or premises used for the
disposal of solid wastes as defined by state solid waste regulations. The term is
synonymous with the term landfill, and is also known as a garbage dump, trash dump or
A chemical compound that is capable of dissolving another substance
and may itself be a hazardous substance, used in a number of manufacturing/industrial
processes including but not limited to, the manufacture of paints and coatings for
industrial and household purposes, equipment clean-up, and surface degreasing in metal
The means by which molds reproduce. Mold spores are microscopic and
vary in shape and size (2-100 micrometers). Mold spores may travel in several ways: they
may be passively moved (by a breeze or water drop), mechanically disturbed (by a person or
animal passing by), or actively discharged by the mold (usually under moist conditions or
There are approximately 10 known species of this mold. These are wet
mold spores. Ballistospores are forcibly discharged during high humidity. This mold can be
found on tree leaves, soil, rotting fruit, and other plant materials. This mold is
associated with lesions caused by other plant parasites. This mold can be found growing on
a variety of indoor substrates. This mold requires very wet conditions. This mold grows
well on general fungal media. Mold colonies are commonly in shades of peach, pink and
salmon; characteristic satellite mold colonies are produced around the main mold colony as
a result of forcibly released ballistospores. This mold is a known Type I and Type III
allergen. As a potential opportunist or pathogen, this mold has been implicated as a cause
of dermatitis. Other disease associations are unclear. If cultural sampling is conducted
on a rainy day, indoor mold spore counts may be very high. If repeat sampling is carried
out on a dry day at the same location, mold spore counts may be drastically reduced.
This mold causes sporotrichosis. Usually only in populations which
This mold is allergenic. See also Sporothrix sp. There is
some taxonomic confusion between these two genera. This particular genera of the mold does
not cause sporotrichosis.
There are approximately 15 species of this mold. This mold is a wet
mold spore that is disseminated by insects and water splash. However, this mold can be
disseminated by wind when dried out. This mold is found in soil, decaying plant
substrates, decomposing cellulose, leaf litter and seeds. This molds growth is
enhanced by manure. This mold is Type I allergenic. This mold produces 9 macrocyclic
tricothecenes. This mold is commonly found indoors on wet materials containing cellulose,
such as wallboard, jute, wicker, straw baskets and paper materials. Several strains of
this mold (S. atra, S. chartarum and S. alternans are synonymous)
produce a trichothecene mycotoxin Satratoxin H that is poisonous by
inhalation. The toxins are present on the mold spores. This species of mold is
slow-growing on media. This mold does not compete well with other rapidly growing molds;
and as a result, the mold cannot be cultured well and may throw analysis results. The dark
colored mold spores grow on building materials with a high cellulose content and a low
nitrogen content. Areas with relative humidities above 55% and are subject to temperature
fluctuations are ideal for toxin production.
Individuals with chronic exposure to the
toxin produced by this mold reported cold and flu-like symptoms, sore throats, diarrhea,
headaches, fatigue, dermatitis, intermittent local hair loss, rhinitis, itching, burning
sensation in the mouth, throat, eyes and nasal passages, and generalized malaise. The
toxins this mold produces will suppress the immune system, affecting the lymphoid tissue
and the bone marrow. Animals injected with the toxin from this mold exhibited the
following symptoms: necrosis and hemorrhage within the brain, thymus, spleen, intestine,
lung, heart, lymph node, liver, and kidney. Affects by absorption of the toxin in the
human lung are known as pneumomycosis.
This mold is rarely found in outdoor
samples. This mold is also usually difficult to find in indoor air samples unless the mold
spores are physically disturbed or if there is (speculation a drop in the relative
humidity). The mold spores are in a gelatinous mass. This mold is slow growing and may not
compete well in the presence of other molds. However, when water availability is high for
prolonged periods on environmental material, this mold may gradually become the
predominating mold, especially on cellulose materials. Appropriate media for growth of
this organism will have a high cellulose content and a low nitrogen content. The mold
spores will die readily after release. However, the dead mold spores are still allergenic
and toxigenic. Percutaneous absorption has caused mild symptoms. There is controversy
about toxigenic effects through inhalation of these mold spores or mycelia, and there are
many resources available for further reading.
There are approximately 6 known species of this mold, and as a dry
mold spore are disseminated by wind. This mold is isolated from dead plants and cellulose
materials. This mold is found in soil, wood, decaying vegetation. Some species of this
mold are found on leaves and are plant pathogens. Growth indoors is rare. This mold grows
on general fungal lab media. This mold is a known Type I allergen.
The stalk of a mushroom or toadstool.
A pit, cistern, cesspool, or similar receptacle where liquids drain,
collect or are stored.
(CERCLA) The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and
Liability Act of 1980 provides the federal government with the mechanism to take emergency
or remedial action to clean up both abandoned and existing disposal sites whenever there
is a release or potential threat of a release of a hazardous substance that may present
imminent and substantial danger to public health and welfare.
This mold causes a respiratory infection characterized by a solid
intracaitary fungal ball.
An inspection is technically exhaustive when it involves the use of
measurements, instruments, testing calculations and other means to develop scientific or
engineering findings, conclusions, and recommendations.
|Threshold Limit Values (TLVs)
Refer to air concentrations of substances and represent conditions
under which it is believed that nearly all occupants may be repeatedly exposed day after
day without adverse health effects.
There are approximately 8 known species of this mold and the dry
mold spores are disseminated by wind. This mold is found most frequently in temperate
regions. This mold can be found in soil, dead herbaceous stems, wood, grasses, sugar beet
root, ground nuts and oats. This mold can be found indoors on cellulose-containing
materials such as jute, old sacking, wicker, straw baskets, wood and paper. This mold
grows vegetatively on general fungal media, but usually requires specialized media for
sporulation. This mold is Type I allergenic. There have been no reports of human
Chemicals which are subject to the regulations issued under the
Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) by the U.S. EPA (40 CFR); this term is also used in a
generic sense to mean "toxic chemicals," "toxic agents," or
An oligosaccharide from some fungi and some molds.
There are approximately 20 species of this mold found in northern
alpine to tropical areas. The wet mold spores are disseminated by rain, insects, water
splash, and wind when dried out. This mold can be found in soil, decaying wood, grains,
citrus fruit, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, paper, textiles, damp wood, pine needles and
unglazed ceramics. Indoors this mold can be found on paper, tapestry, in kitchens on the
outer surface of unglazed ceramics and on a variety of other substrates. This mold readily
feeds off degraded cellulose. This mold often will grow on other fungi and molds. This
mold grows well on general fungal media; spreads in a white floccose mat, developing
blue-green to yellow-green tufts of mold spores. The T. viride species of this mold
has a distinctive coconut odor. This mold produces antibiotics that are toxic to humans
and may cause a mycotoxicosis similar to that caused by Stachybotrys chartarum;
some of the metabolic substances produced by this mold are closely related to
trichothecenes. This mold is a known allergen for Type I allergies and Type III
hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Human infections include a pulmonary cavity, peritonitis in
a dialysis patient, and a perihepatic infection in a liver transplant patient. This mold
is considered an emerging opportunist in immuno-compromised persons. The T. harzianum species
of this mold has been reported to produce antifungal trichoriazine compounds. Trichoderma
harzianum pellets have been mixed with ground bark to protect trees and vegetable
crops against infections from other plant pathogens. The T. viride species of this
mold produces cellulase and hemicellulase used in commercial beer, wine and food
processing. This mold enhances the aroma in tea and mushroom products. This mold produces
tricothecene and cyclic peptides; gliotoxin, isocyanides, T-2 toxin and trichodermin.
This mold causes ringworm, athletes foot, skin lesions, nail
discoloration and loss, and beard and scalp flaking.
This mold is found in decomposing vegetation, soil, corn seeds and
in flour. The species of Trichothecium roseum sp. produces a trichothecene toxin
that is associated with disease in humans and other animals. This mold is a known
This mold is allergenic.
|Type I Allergen
Atopic and Anaphylactic Hypersensitivity. Involves localized acute
reactions in genetically susceptible individuals to allergens. When the allergen contacts
the respiratory tree, nasal mucosa and conjunctiva, it triggers the symptoms of asthma or
|Type II Allergen
Antibody Dependent Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity. Involves human
immunoglobulin antibodies and complements reacting with the antigen or specific target
cells that then cause destruction of cells.
|Type III Allergen
Immune Complex Mediated Hypersensitivity. Involves a reaction
between antigen-antibody and complements that form insoluble complexes at fixed sites. The
complexes give rise to acute inflammatory reactions, local damage from vascular
permeability changes, and from phagocytes that release granules containing proteolytic
|Type IV Allergen
Cell Mediated Hypersensitivity. Involves delayed allergic reactions
to bacteria, viruses, fungi and molds. Lymphocytes react with antigens to release
mediators that produce cellular inflammation.
There are approximately 9 known species of this mold with a dry mold
spore that is disseminated by wind. This mold is found in soil, dung, paint, grasses,
fibers, wood, decaying plant material, paper and textiles. This molds growth indoors
is widespread and found on gypsum board, paper, paint, tapestries, jute, other straw
materials and has a high water requirement. This mold grows well on all general fungal
media. Mold spore colonies are dark brown to rusty brown, granular to velvety. This mold
is known to be a major allergen for Type I allergies. This mold cross-reacts with Alternaria,
adding to the allergenic burden of sensitive patients. This mold is known to be a rare
subcutaneous tissue infection agent.
The rate at which indoor air enters and leaves a building. Expressed
in one of two ways: the number of changes of outdoor air per unit of time (air changes per
hour, or "ach") or the rate at which a volume of outdoor air enters per unit of
time (cubic feet per minute, or "cfm").
To confirm or substantiate.
This mold is found in decaying vegetation, on straw, soil and
arthropods. This mold is a rare cause of corneal infections.
|Wallemia sebi sp.
This mold is monotypic. This mold is a dry mold spore disseminated
by wind. This mold can be found in soil, foodstuffs, hay, textiles. This mold grows on
salted fish. This mold is also found in sugary foods, salted meats, dairy products and
fruits. This mold grows indoors on relatively dry surfaces and found on wood in crawl
spaces. This mold is common in mattress dust; and may colonize human skin scales. This
mold has poor growth on general fungal media. This mold grows on specialized fungal media
with high osmotic pressure. This mold forms very small tan, elevated mold spore colonies.
This mold is a known allergen for Type I allergies and there have been reports of a rare
human abscess. This mold produces the toxins walleminol, tryptophol and UCA 1064-beta.
A room between the work area and the holding area in the equipment
decontamination enclosure system. The washroom comprises an airlock.
The process of eliminating contamination from building surfaces and
objects by using cloths, mops or other cleaning tools which have been dampened with water
as required; and afterwards disposing of these cleaning tools as contaminated waste.
Area or areas of the Project where mitigation/remediation is being
A fungus capable of growing on substrates possessing a low water
potential, i.e., water activities below 0.85.
A unicellular fungus that multiplies by budding or fission. Various
yeasts are commonly identified on air samples. Some yeasts are allergenic. They may cause
problems if a person has had previous exposure and developed hypersensitivities. Yeasts
are allergenic to susceptible individuals when present in sufficient concentrations.
Motile sporangiospore capable of swimming in water by means of one
or two flagella.